Saturday, June 8, 2013

CONTOH JURNAL ILMIAH CONTOH PENELITIAN TINDAKAN KELAS BIOLOGI

" PEMAHAMAN KONSEP KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN LINGKUNGAN SEKOLAH DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI DI SLTP "



 " UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF PLANT DIVERSITY BY USING ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING IN SCHOOL BIOLOGY IN JSS  "


ABSTRACT

            Preliminary results of observations on some Junior High School in kotamadyaDenpasar shows that there are several obstacles facing teachers in the learning process. One problem is difficult to instill understanding of the concept of plant diversity to students. The purpose of this action research were (1) to know that the use of the school environment can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity, (2) To increase the students work on assignments in groups in understanding the concept of plant diversity. Data obtained through the use of tests and observation, the data is processed by a percentage. The results of the data analysis obtained in the first cycle of learning success; 71.79%, the second cycle; was 84.62% and in the third cycle, at 94.874%. So it shows there is an increase in student learning from cycle I to cycle III. Thus, the use of the school environment can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. Student collaboration in completing tasks in groups also increased, proving increasingly active discussion within the group and the ability of the group tasks quickly and perfectly.

Keywords: Understanding Concepts, Plant Diversity and Environmental Education.


ABSTRACT

The result of preliminary observation at some SLTPN 10 Denpasar Municipality, that there were some Showed Difficulties faced by the teacher in the learning process. One of them was that it was difficult to teach understanding of plant diversity concept to the students. The purposes of this action research were (1) to fine out Whether or not the benefit of the school environment concept could improvethe understanding of plant diversity, (2) to improve the student's ability in completing the task group in studying the plant diversity. The Data were Obtained from the test and observation, they were Analyzed by the use of percentage. The result of the data analysis Showed success in the learning cycle I, 71.79%, in cycle II, 84.62%, and in cycle III, 94.87%. The Showed that there was good improvement from the first cycle, to cycle III. There fore the benefit of the school environment could improve the student's understanding of plant diversity concept. The student's cooperation in completing the task group improv, seen from their activities in group discussions and their ability in completing the task.

Keywords: Concept understanding, plant diversity, and school environment.


1. Preliminary

            Based on preliminary observations at several schools in Denpasar, as SLTPN 1, 2, 5 and 10 Denpasar municipality, there are several obstacles that teachers face in teaching biology. One problem is to teach the concept of plant diversity. According to the teachers planting concept of plant diversity on students is very difficult. The difficulty was due to the difficulty students memorize the names of plants that exist, reference is missing, time is limited and fairly solid hours of teaching teachers.

            From interviews with 10 teachers of biology SLTPN Denpasar municipality also obtained information that the school has not been utilized in the learning process, especially plant diversity. This finding is in accordance with the opinion Arief (1996) that the learning process is still dominant biology teachers to transfer knowledge to students without making students active in learning. In fact more teachers use the lecture method in teaching biology. According Sukmadinata (1988), a good teacher is a teacher who succeeded in teaching, the teachers can prepare students to achieve the learning objectives are formulated in accordance with the curriculum. There have been many posts that highlight about the environment, but research - research that has not been touched directly on efforts to increase the understanding of concepts in particular the concept of plant diversity. The learning process in teaching biology lecture method tends to make students become passive, and there is no desire of students to try to do a simple research in learning. Thus studying biology, especially plant diversity necessary learning process by using process skills approach proses.Pendekatan skills train students to make observations and try to direct the problems observed in the learning process.

            According to Funk and Harlen (1993), the intellectual process skills are skills that are used to process information obtained in pembelaiaran. As stated in the Department of Education (1994) that the process skills approach is an approach to teaching and learning that emphasizes skill formation gain and communicate the acquisition. By using the process skills approach is expected to achieve the learning objectives in accordance with the purpose of teaching the curriculum as suggested by Bloom covers aspects of knowledge (cognitive domain), aspects of attitudes (affective domain), and aspects of skills (psychomotor domain) (Darmodjo and Kaligis, 1992). Of expert opinion in the above it can be concluded that, the skills approach is considered the most appropriate approach for teaching biology.

            In the study Sarjono (2000) stated, the application of process skills of students is very less so that students demonstrate an inability to express ideas in their own way. On the other hand also shows that the average NEM IPA on SLTPN in East Java is still low, as the year 1996/1997 amounted to 5.18, 1997/1998 by 4.81 and the year 1998/1999 amounted to 4.74, while the average NEM SLTPN 10 IPA at Denpasar municipality in 1998/1999 amounted to 5.29, lower than that of other subjects such as Mathematics (6.26), Civics (7.16), Indonesian (6.76), IPS (6.47 ), and English (7,70).

            Listening to the symptoms mentioned above is necessary to increase understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. and its implementation in learning environment by utilizing the school as a learning resource. The school environment is everything that is around the school, including the environment (biotic) such as plants and animals and the environment is not living (abiotic) such as soil, water, air, climate dansinar sun (Department of Education, 1994). Relative to the Kimmins (1997) states there are two important components in the environment of organisms that abiotic factors (physical and chemical) and biotic. Environment is used as a learning resource in learning biology in the Municipality of Denpasar SLTPN 10.

            According to Rifai (1992) students should be familiarized with the real efforts of biodiversity conservation in the surrounding environment such as a visit to the garden seed collection, city parks, school grounds, zoos, nature reserves and so on. The visit will add their insights about the importance of the utilization of biodiversity resources, wisely, especially in the learning process. Another impact of these efforts it causes students to understand the importance of diversity especially plant diversity. Sulasmi (2000) expressed the diversity of plants is a natural form of appearance or manifestation different from the herbs contained in a region. The natural embodiment may include characteristics or morphology, anatomy, physiology, genetic and ecosystem of plants.

            Of the background and basis of the above theory, research problem is formulated as follows. (1) Is the use of the learning environment in schools can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in grade 10 IB SLTPN Denpasar municipality? (2) Is the use of the school environment can improve the students' work on Student Activity Sheet (LKS) in groups in understanding the concept of plant diversity?

            Of background and problem formulation above, the purpose of this research is. (1) to improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in grade 10 IB SLTPN Denpasar municipality, and (2) to improve students' ability to work in a group activity sheets in understanding the concept of plant diversity.

2. Research Methods
            This research is a classroom action research (Classroom Action Research). Implementation of action research in the Municipality of Denpasar SLTPN 10 because problems were encountered in the learning process as kurangnyapemahaman concept of plant diversity in students. To overcome this it is necessary efforts to improve the learning process by teachers, for the most gurulah only know about the state of the managed class. Lewin (in Kemmis and McTaggart, 1988) described action research as a continuous action of a spiral-shaped steps, each step (cycle) provides planning, action, observation (evaluation) of action and reflection. The research was conducted in collaboration between researchers and teachers of biology class I SLTPN 10 Denpasar municipality. The study lasted three cycles, each cycle consisting of four stages, namely (1) the planning stage, include: briefing for teachers, instructional modeling, preparation of test instruments (pretest, posttest), observation sheets and form study groups of students, (2) stage of implementation of the action, including: implementation of planning activities that are made, (3) observation phase, namely the observation of the implementation of the action through observation, and (4) the reflection phase, which analyzes and gives the meaning of the action, so it can be made on the action plan the next cycle.

            The data in this study were collected by using a test and observation. The test is used to obtain data on an improved understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. Assays used 25-item question on every cycle, the third cycle sehinggajumlah a matter of being totaled 75 items. So that the test can measure aspects of the preparation of the necessary and appropriate to the subject and sub subject is taught, it is first compiled test grating (Sujana, 1989). Further tests have been prepared transactions are carried out trials in order to test it first (instrument) can be used to capture the data accurately. Relation to the trial of the test is carried out (a) the validity, (b) test reliability, (c) test the level of difficulty, and (d) test different power. Furthermore, after the tests to qualify in accordance with the requirements of a good test then the test is used to capture the data in the study, such as holding a pretest and posttest on each cycle. Students are considered to be thoroughly studied, when it has reached a value of 6.5 to the top or 65%, of students who scored less than 6.5 revealed yet thoroughly studied. Posttest procurement carried out at each end of the cycle while to observe the activities of teachers and students to use observation. In support of the observations, the researchers also did the recording process of the learning activities using the camera.

           
            Collected data were analyzed by percentage formula. Furthermore, the values ​​obtained in the student into the match with a scale score conversion table five. The results of this analysis are used to search for mastery learning. According to the Department of Education (1994) in the classical mastery learning as much as 85% of students received grades of 6.5 or 65%, meaning that new students can be said to be complete when the student has received a minimum score of 6.5. When students received grades of less than 6.5 is considered incomplete learning, then the student in question is inserted into one or two groups depending on the number of students who have not completed bekajar. These students are getting attention (focus) of the teachers during the implementation of the action in the subsequent cycles.

3. Results and Discussion
            3.1 Research Results
                        A year before the actual study begins first biology teacher and researcher with grade I in 1999/2000 the exact date is August 9, 2000 entered into planting herbs in the school yard SLTPN 10 Denpasar municipality. The goal is to increase the diversity of plant species in the school environment, school environment that will support the implementation of research already. As for the types of plants that were planted include: water girlfriend, roses, hibiscus, bougainvillea, chrysolite, croton, palms and ferns, like maidenhair fern, birds nest nails and nail antlers. At the time of the study the plants have grown to perfection, as long as the plant has been well maintained by the school officials. At the time of planting the students were given the task of preparing a report in groups ranging from the selection of crops to be grown up in the growth of these plants.

            Furthermore, the study was conducted in three cycles. In the first cycle conducted three meetings, discuss the concept of algae, mold and moss, each meeting takes 2 x 45 minutes. Division of time 10 minutes early motivation of teachers and the division of the group, 30 minutes of activity in the field and 40-minute class discussion and presentation of the results and ended 10 minutes later with a summary by the teacher. Each cycle begins with a pretest and posttest held at the end of the cycle. Observations on the implementation of the first cycle is as follows, namely (a) the teacher has started learning to motivate the students and ending with a summary, (b) at each activity the teacher has tried to assist students, (c) working group of students was less active , especially the 5, 6, and 7 are active groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, (d) the results of the posttest there were 28 people or 71.79% of students have been thoroughly studied, while 11 people or 28.21% of students has not been thoroughly studied. Refkeksi results in the first cycle is (a) the activity of students in group work less, (b) students have not been able to make inferences correctly, (c) teachers encourage students to dare to ask and answer questions, and (d) are 71.79% of students have thoroughly studied and 28.21% of students have not been thoroughly studied.

            Of reflection action plan drafted in the first cycle following the second cycle, namely (1) the teacher changes the structure of the group by entering the less successful students into two groups (group 1 and group 2), (2) entering students who have not completed into two groups earlier, (3) teachers should focus more attention to students who have not completed, (4) teachers advise students to work more systematically, and (5) students are required to read at least the day before the lesson.

            In the second cycle of the meetings held, the concept is discussed with details of ferns time of 2 x 45 minutes. Implementation of measures in education in general, the same as the first cycle, but focus attention on two groups of teachers who have not completed. Observations on the second cycle of action as follows, namely: (a) group discussion increases, (b) active discussion and ask students, (c) each group is able to complete the task, (d) the results of post-test there are 33 people or 84.62% of students has been thoroughly studied, while 6 people or 15.38% were not thoroughly studied. Reflection action is (a) has been active in student learning, (b) active students ask and answer questions, (c) students completed the task faster and (d) there are 15% of students who have not been thoroughly studied.

            Of reflection acts on the second cycle, and then arranged a plan of action in the third cycle as follows, namely (1) the teacher changes the structure of the group, with 6 people entering students who have not successfully into one group: the group 1, (2) teachers focus more attention to the group students who have not completed, and (3) the teacher split the learning model at the end of the meeting the next cycle of the second cycle.

            In the third cycle of meetings held three times, each with 2 x 45 minutes, concepts discussed are seed plants (Spermatophyta) includes: open seed plants (gymnosperms), seed plants closed (Angiospermae). Time sharing and implementation techniques are generally the same as the first cycle and second cycle. Observations on the third cycle of action is as follows, namely: (a) teachers implement the learning process well, (b) student group work went well, (c) students actively discuss and ask questions, (d) the activity is the focus of research groups running well and active, (e) of the posttest results are 94.87% (37 people) who have been thoroughly studied, while 5.13% (2) has not been thoroughly studied of the 39 students who become research subjects. Reflections of action in the third cycle as follows: (a) cooperative group and liveliness goes well, (b) the focus group research to improve understanding of the concept, (c) the level of mastery learning in classical reached 94.87% or as many as 37 people means it is above 85%, and (d) the implementation of the next cycle not required kagi.

            From the obtained results of the third cycle in a row, which is (a) 71.79% in the first cycle, (b) 84.62% in the second cycle, and (c) 94.87% in the third cycle. It means there is an increased understanding of plant diversity concepts mastered by the student class Denpasar IB SLTPN 10 municipalities in the process of learning biology. Thus, the hypothesis reads in an optimal utilization of the school environment can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in grade 10 IB SLTPN Denpasar municipality is acceptable, because it has been proven true.

3.2 Discussion
            Utilization of school in biology learning environment can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. It has been shown from the results of the implementation of the action in each cycle as described in Chapter IV that the results of the study. From these data there is an increasing understanding of the concepts students are very convincing, very supportive school environment meaning when used in the learning process because it can accelerate the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in grade 10 IB SLTPN Denpasar municipality. This finding is in accordance with the opinion Arief (1996) that states the use of media in the form of the original will be more meaningful for the students and for the development of biological science than models forms of media, drawings and sketches. This finding is also supported by research and Disinger Lisowski (1984) who argued that students' conceptions about the concept of ecology and the influence of the field of teaching strategies to improve their comprehension and retention on this concept. In line with these findings Yount and Horton (1992) suggested that students who have an attitude towards a better environment will be able to take better decisions also in the preservation of the surrounding environment.

            When compared with the findings of other researchers who were referred, this study has its own characteristics, namely the use of plants that exist in the school environment in an effort to accelerate the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. The result is beneficial for students, such as (1) the student has the skills to gain knowledge in the form of "process skills" or the scientific method, (2) arousal increased student learning, student activity reflected in the conduct of activities in the field and in the classroom, and ( 3) learning to be meaningful, because once the concept is understood that the concept can be remembered longer. This finding is supported by the opinion Arikunto (1990) that the school environment is something that is close to the students' world and easily recognizable in everyday life, as well as the school environment is a place that supports the majority of the needs of students.

            This study is also useful for teachers, because (1) teachers can deepen the approaches and methods used, (2) teachers become more professional, because of increased knowledge and understanding of the PTK. This finding is supported by Susilo (2000) states that skilled teachers implement classroom action research (CAR) is a teacher who is always willing to improve its management of learning processes.
           
            The implications of this research for school is a professional school that has teachers and schools can add to the collection of plants that are useful in the process of learning, beauty, coolness, and environmental preservation. Equally important, these findings mean for researchers because (1) to increase knowledge about TOD, (2) to know more in learning biology in junior high, and (3) can pioneering Partnership working with schools and teachers.

            Utilization of the school environment to enhance students' skills in working in groups LKS. This can be realized due to any action, teachers have always formed groups consisting of five to six students, and then distributed worksheets. They are not necessarily fixed, because at each cycle is always changing composition of its members. This change aims to (a) facilitate teachers guide students, (b) familiarize students work in groups on any person, and (c) increase the activity of a discussion with a new atmosphere, as well as students will be excited to learn.

            In the first cycle, there are three groups that have not been active as a group of 4, 6, and 7 groups. From the observations indicate that this group has not been active discussion, not able to complete tasks thoroughly and have not been able to make the correct conclusions. Dentsch (in Lazarowith and Slavin, 1984) states that learning can take place in working groups, the students have to prepare yourself in a positive interdependence between members of any other group.

            In the second cycle with changes in the composition of the group and held focus groups of teachers were more focused on a less complete, it can increase the activity of the better groups and active. This fact is shown in (a) of each group was able to complete the task, and (b) the student has the courage to ask questions and answer his questions. This suggests teamwork can be built from the consciousness of each individual in the group. This finding is supported by the opinions Slavin (1986) that the special characteristics that make this method of group learning is to encourage students to work together to learn and be responsible.

            The third cycle again changed the composition of the group. This change is necessary because the second cycle there are six students who have not been thoroughly studied, although in general the work group has shown good activity. The inclusion of students who have not completed all in one group, it can spur them to learn and work better, is evidenced in the third cycle posttest results reach 94.87%. With these results mean understanding the concept of plant diversity and the ability to work on assignments in groups of students are in either category.

4. Cover

Based on the results of research and discussion can be summarized as the following.

    Utilization of the school environment in the learning process can improve the understanding of the concept of plant diversity in students. This is evidenced by the increase in student mastery at each cycle, ie 71.79% in the first cycle, the second cycle of 84.62%, and 94.87% in the third cycle.
    Passing grade on the third cycle of 94.87% exceeded standards is 85%, so that the learning has been considered thoroughly.
    Teamwork is increasing at every cycle. This success is demonstrated by its active students in group discussions and class discussions, so that learning becomes more meaningful for students.
    Teachers get creative and professional as the experience of holding stock in the TOD teachers get professional improvement and development of the learning process in class.




Based on the above conclusions can be suggested as follows.

    The Government in building the school expected him to make a shady courtyard and the rich diversity of plants, so it can be used in teaching biology, environmental protection and beauty.
    The Ministry of Education in order to give attention to teachers so as to understand and be able to perform PTK, so it can follow the problems encountered in the learning process at school.
    For principals suggested that provides opportunities for teachers to develop creativity and professionalism in teaching, so that teachers not only transfer knowledge but to encourage students to find or prove theories through direct experience.
    Those teachers are expected always adding new ideas in learning knowledge so as to improve students' learning passion.


REFERENCES

    Arief, A. , 1996. "Creating a Dynamic Teaching and Learning Situation". Journal Chimera 1 (1) / 96:5 - 21.
    Arikunto, S. , 1990. Environment as a Source of Learning in Schools. Jakarta: Directorate General of Higher P2Tk. Department of Education.
    Arikunto, S. , 1999. Educational Evaluation basics. Jakarta: Bumiaksara.
    Darmodjo, H, & Kaligis, J.R.E. , 1992. Science education II. Jakarta: Directorate General of Higher Education Department of Education P2TK.
    Department of Education. , 1994. Junior high school curriculum. Implementation Guidelines for Teaching and Learning. London: Department of Education Basic Education and Secondary Director, Directorate of Secondary Education.
    Department of Education. , 1999. Action Research (Action Research). Jakarta: Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Department of Education, Directorate of Secondary Education.
    Funk, J., & Harlen, W. , 1993. The Teaching in Science. London: David Fulton Publishers.
    Kemmis, S., & Mc Taggart, R. 1988. The Action Research Planer. Victoria: Deakin University Press.
    Kimmins, J.P. , 1997. Forest Ecology, A Foundation for Sustainable Management. Second Edition. 07458 New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    Lazarowitz, C.W., & Slavin, R. 1984.Learning to Cooperative, Cooperative to Learn. New York: Plenum Press.
    Lisowski, M. and Disinger, J.F. , 1987. Cognitive Learning in The Environment: Secondary Students. ERIC / Environment Education Digest No. SMEAC. 1, 1987. (Http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed.286756-html.13-1-97).
    Rifai, M.A. , 1992. School of Biological Diversity in the Classroom. Surabaya: Surabaya FPMIPA Teachers' Training College.
    Sardjono. In 2000. Problems in Schools and Education Efforts Solutions. Malang: Directorate General of Higher Education.
    Sujana, N.1989. Teaching Learning Outcomes Assessment. Bandung: PT Publisher. Teens Rosdakarya.
    Slavin, R. , 1986. Cooperative Learning Theory, Research and Practice (2nd). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Sukmadinata, N.S. 1988. Principles and Curriculum Development Platform. Jakarta: Directorate General of Higher Education Department of Education. P2LPTK.
    Sulasmi. E.S. In 2000. Plant Diversity in high school teaching, Problems and Solutions. Malang: UM Ministry of Education, Science Faculty. Paper, 23 February 2000.
    Susilo, H. In 2000. Importance of Classroom Action Research for Teachers of the Future. Malang: Ministry of Education, State University of Malang. Reasoning Empowerment Seminar presented in the Preparation of a Generation theme Qualified Junior Student Development Through Reasoning in SLTPN 2 Malang 15 April 2000.
    PGSM Project Research Team. , 1999. Classroom Action Research (Classroom Action Research). Jakarta: Directorate General of Higher P2GSM Department of Education (Secondary School Teacher Development Project).
    Yount, J.R & Horton, P.B. , 1992. Attitude Influenching Environmental Factor: The Relationship Between Environmental Attitude and Cognitive Reasoning Level Defensibility. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 29 (10) 1051-1077.
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