Saturday, December 22, 2012

KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU

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USING ADVERB CLAUSE IN INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY

USING ADVERB CLAUSE
IN INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY



ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY EDUCATION SCIENCE AND TEACHING
UNIVERSITAS OF IBN KHALDUN
BOGOR
2009

A. Introduction
Every body has learned their language since they were children, especially their mother language. Communication is a part of human’s daily activities through communication by using language, besides communication by using language, writing also of very importance in instructional activity. With our article can expression feeling our heart to public. in our English article must pay attention word structure, and sentence such as we must understand part of speech. Part of speech like noun, verb, adjective and adverb. With pay attention sentence structure, our sentence will easy understand by reader. Moreover writing English is also very important for us, especially in the world of education and working world we should write English.



B. Theoretical
Definition :
Instructional Activities
We want to help you discover activities that are enjoyable and educational, that will motivate students and will help them understand important scientific concepts. These "activities to stimulate learning" can occur in a specific discipline (such as biology, geology, astronomy, chemistry, or physics) or in a multi-disciplinary context.

Instructional Activities refers to teaching and teaching-related activities such as curriculum development; preparing for and conducting class meetings, including: laboratory, studio, clinical, practicum, or shop practice; developing instructional materials; preparing and grading assignments and examinations; conferring with students about coursework; non-credit and community services instructional offerings; engaging in other teaching-related activities; academic advising and career counseling of students; recruiting students; evaluating student transcripts and life experience equivalencies; assisting students in planning their programs of study; advising student groups; serving as a mentor to individual students; other related student life and student support activities; and other "hours arranged" such as credit by examinations and independent study.
I began with a power point presentation about these sounds. A little introduction to them, I explained how my students pronounce these sounds, and show them words that contain them.

The PowerPoint included two major activities. The first one was that they saw two similar words on the slide; each word is connected with a picture that explains its meaning. I would pronounce one of them and the students had to say what this word was. This activity aimed to see initially whether the students learned from the previous instructional slides.
The other activity was about the song "Mary had a little lamb." The students would watch the video clip of the song and read the transcription of it at the same time. Then we together would discover which word in the song has either one of these specified sounds. Though they enjoyed the song, they had some difficulty finding out the right words. This experiencing of difficulty seems to be normal since they are second language learners, but my aim of the activity was that they should have a better sense of these vowels.

Differentiated instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.[1]
Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson (as cited by Ellis, Gable, Greg, & Rock, 2008, p. 32), is the process of “ensuring that what a student learns, how he/she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he/she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning”. Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners, how they learn, learning preferences and individual interests (Anderson, 2007).
Adverb
An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any part of language other than a noun (modifiers of nouns are primarily adjectives and determiners). Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs.
Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, how? and to what extent?. In English, they often end in -ly. This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words (i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.
An adverb may be a sentence element in its own right:
They treated her well.
Alternatively, an adverb may be contained within a sentence element (here part of the subject element):
An extremely tall woman entered the room.



Adverbial
n grammar an adverbial is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or tells us something about the sentence or the verb. The word adverbial is also used as an adjective, meaning 'having the same function as an adverb'. Look at the examples below:
Danny speaks fluently. (telling us more about the verb)
Adverbials operate at sentence level as sentence elements, as in the example below:
Lorna ate breakfast yesterday morning. (SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + ADVERBIAL)
The form of adverbials
In English, adverbials most commonly take the form of adverbs, adverb phrases, temporal noun phrases or prepositional phrases. Many types of adverbials (for instance reason and condition) are often expressed by clauses.
James answered immediately. (adverb)
James answered in English. (prepositional phrase)
James answered this morning. (noun phrase)
James answered in English because he had a foreign visitor. (adverbial clause)
An adverbial is a construction that modifies, or describes, verbs. When an adverbial modifies a verb, it changes the meaning of that verb. Word groups that are also considered to be adverbials can also modify verbs: for example, a prepositional phrase,a noun phrase, a finite clause or a non-finite clause.[1]
In every sentence pattern, the adverbial is a clause element that tells where, when, why, or how. There can be more than one adverbial in a sentence. In addition, the same adverbial can be moved to different positions in a sentence.
One way to analyze sentence structure is to think in terms of form and function. Form refers to a word class--such as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and preposition--as well as types of phrases, such as prepositional phrase, nominal clause, and adverbial clause. Function refers to the function of the form in a sentence. For example, the function of a prepositional phrase in a sentence may be adverbial; that is, it modifies a verb.

Types of adverbials which form sentence elements
Adverbials are typically divided into four classes:
adverbial complements (i.e. obligatory adverbial) are adverbials that render a sentence ungrammatical and meaningless if removed.
John put the flowers in a vase.
adjuncts: these are part of the core meaning of the sentence, but if omitted still leave a meaningful sentence.
John helped me with my homework.
conjuncts: these link two sentences together.
John helped so I was, therefore, able to do my homework.
disjuncts: these make comments on the meaning of the rest of the sentence.
Surprisingly, he passed all of his exams.
Adverbial phrase
An adverbial (or adverbial phrase) is a linguistic term for a group of more than one word operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function.
Compare the following sentences:
I'll go to bed soon.
I'll go to bed in an hour.
I'll go to bed after one more TV Tropes article.
In the first, soon is an adverb (as distinct from a noun or verb), and it is an adverbial (as distinct from a subject or object). Clearly, in the second sentence, in an hour has the same syntactic function, though it does not contain an adverb; therefore, a preposition and a noun (preceded by its article) can function together as an adverbial. Such a multi-word adverbial may be called an adverbial phrase. In the third sentence, we see a whole clause functioning as an adverbial. It could also be called an adverbial phrase, but is more


C. Data
Clause
In grammar, a clause is a pair or group of words that consist of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase. It may instead be marked on the verb (this is especially common in null subject languages). The most basic kind of sentence consists of a single clause; more complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses, including clauses contained within clauses.
Clauses are often contrasted with phrases. Traditionally, a clause was said to have both a finite verb and its subject, whereas a phrase either contained a finite verb but not its subject (in which case it is a verb phrase) or did not contain a finite verb. Hence, in the sentence "I didn't know that the dog ran through the yard," "that the dog ran through the yard" is a clause, as is the sentence as a whole, while "the yard," "through the yard," "ran through the yard," and "the dog" are all phrases. However, modern linguists do not draw the same distinction, as they accept the idea of a non-finite clause, a clause that is organized around a non-finite verb.

Functions of dependent clauses
Under this classification scheme, there are three main types of dependent clauses: noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses, so-called for their syntactic and semantic resemblance to nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, respectively. In the following English examples, dependent noun clauses are shown in bold:
"What you say is not as important as how you say it."
"I imagine that they're having a good time."
"I keep thinking about what happened yesterday."
(The word that is optional in the second sentence, highlighting a complication in the entire dependent/independent contrast: "They're having a good time" is a complete sentence, and therefore an independent clause, but "that they're having a good time" is a dependent clause.)
An adjective clause modifies a noun phrase. In English, adjective clauses typically come at the end of their noun phrases and usually have a relative pronoun forming a relative clause. The pronoun can sometimes be omitted to produce a reduced relative clause:
"The woman I saw said otherwise."
"I found the book that she suggested to me."
An adverb clause typically modifies its entire main clause. In English, it usually precedes (in a periodic sentence) or follows (in a loose sentence) its main clause. The following adverb clauses show when (with the subordinating conjunction "when") and why (with the subordinating conjunction "because"):
"When she gets here, all will be explained."
"She worried because they were already an hour late."
The line between categories may be indistinct, and, in some languages, it may be difficult to apply these classifications at all. At times more than one interpretation is possible, as in the English sentence "We saw a movie, after which we went dancing," where "after which we went dancing" can be seen either as an adjective clause ("We saw a movie. After the movie, we went dancing.") or as an adverb clause ("We saw a movie. After we saw the movie, we went dancing."). Sometimes the two interpretations are not synonymous, but are both intended, as in "Let me know when you're ready," where "when you're ready" functions both as a noun clause (the object of know, identifying what knowledge is to be conveyed) and as an adverb clause (specifying when the knowledge is to be conveyed).


Adverbial clause
An adverbial clause is a clause that functions as an adverb. In other words, it contains subject (explicit or implied) and predicate, and it modifies a verb.
I saw Joe when I went to the store. (explicit subject I)
He sat quietly in order to appear polite. (implied subject he)
According to Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk, adverbial clauses function mainly as adjuncts or disjuncts. In those functions they are like adverbial phrases, but in their potentiality for greater explicitness, they are more often like prepositional phrases (Greenbaum and Quirk,1990):
We left after the speeches ended. (Is it an adverbial clause, adverbial phrase or preposition phrase?)
We left after the end of the speeches.(Is it an adverbial clause, adverbial phrase or preposition phrase?)
Contrast adverbial clauses with adverbial phrases, which do not contain a clause.
I like to fly kites for fun


Kinds of adverbial clauses
kind of clause Usual conjunction Function Example
time clauses when, before, after, since, while, as, until These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event. Her father died when she was young.
conditional clauses if, unless These clauses are used to talk about a possible situation and its consequences. If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.
Purpose clauses in order to, so that, in order that These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action. They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.
reason clauses because, since, as, given These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something. I couldn't feel anger against him because I liked him too much.
result clauses so..that These clauses are used to indicate the result of something. My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.
concessive clauses although, though, while These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising. I used to read a lot although I don't get much time for books now
place clauses where, wherever These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something. He said he was happy where he was.
clauses of manner as, like, the way These clauses are used to talk about someone's behaviour or the way something is done. I was never allowed to do things the way I wanted to do them.
clauses of exclamations what a(an), how, such, so Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise etc. They always take an exclamation mark (!). What horrible news! How fast she types! You lucky man!


D. Analysis

Adverb Clauses: Introduction

Summary List of Word Used To Introduction Adverb Clauses
Time Cause and effect Opposition condition
after because even though if
before since although unless
when now that though only if
while as whether or not
as as/so long as even if
by the time(that) in as much as whereas providing (that)
since while provided (that)
until in case (that)
as soon as so (that) in the event
once in order that
as/so long as
whenever
every time (that)
the first time (that)
the last time (that)
the next time (that)
(a) When we were in New York, we saw several
Plays
(b) We saw several plays when we were in New
York When we were in New York is an adverb clause. It is dependent clause. It cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause
Punctuation : When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, as in (a), a comma is used to separate the clauses, when the adverb clause follows, as in (b), usually no comma is used.
(c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed
(d) He went to bed because he was sleepy Like when, because introduce an adverb clause, because he was sleepy is an adverb clause.



Using adverb clauses to show time relationships
After (a) After she graduates, she will get a job.
(b) After she (had) graduated, she got a job. A present tense, not a future is used in an adverb clause of time. Notice examples (b) and (d) (See chapter 1 for tense usage in future time clauses
Before (c) I will leave before he comes
(d) I ( had) left before he come
When (e) When I arrived, he was talking on the phone
(f) When I got there, he had already left.
(g) When it began to rain, I stood under a tree
(h) When I was in Chicago, I visited the
Museum
(i ) When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him When = at the time
(Notice the different time relationships expressed by the tenses
While as (j) While I was walking home, it began to rain
(k) As I was walking home, it began to rain While as = during that time
By the time (l) By the time he arrived, we had already left.
(m) By the time he comes, we will already have left. By the time = one event is completed before another event. (notice the use of the past perfect and future perfect in the main clause)
Since (n) I haven’t seen him since he left this
Morning. Since= from that time to the present (notice The present perfect tense is used in the main clause.
Until
Till (o) We stayed there until we finished our work
(p) We stayed there till we finished our work Until, till = to that time and then no longer (till is used primarily in speaking rather than writing)
As soon as
Once (q) As soon as it stops raining, we will leave
(r) Once it stops raining, we will leave As soon as, once = when one event happen, another event happens soon afterward
As long as (s) I will never speak to him again as long as I
Live
(t) I will never speak to him again as long as I
Live As long as, so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end
Whenever
Every time (u) Whenever I see her, I saw hello
(v) Every time I see her, I saw hello Whenever = every time
The first time
The last time
The next time (w) The first time I went to New York, I went to an
Opera
(x) I saw two plays the last time I went to New
York
(y) The next time I go to New York, I’m going to
See a ballet Adverb clauses can be introduced by the following
first
second
The third time
last
next


E. Conclusion

Adverb clause is part of little grammar include to language component also aim to language skill that is writing So on study adverb clause we must understand the connector of the sentence example time explanation, cause and effect, opposition and condition. in study activity adverb clause explain that on write to need comprehension clause such as comprehension adverb clause.
Study activity adverb clause will reached if we have understood conjunction or connector that explained in data and analysis, with understand clause we on write will very easier on in develop essay.




F. Reference
Azar, betty schrampfer. 1989. Undestanding and Using Using English Grammar, New Jersey 07632: Prentire- Hall. Inc.

Murphy, Raymond. 1985. English Grammar In Use, New York: The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English, New Jersey: Prentire – Hall. Inc.

Frymer, Jack. 1965. the nature of educational method, Ohio: Charles E, Merrill Books. Inc.

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